Islam can be seen as a tribal rebellion against the Byzantine and Persian empires, with the Arabs and Jews being allies against these empires.
("The gospel truth?" Patricia Crone - Wikipedia)
"Tom Holland kept on asking questions like that during Islam: the Untold Story." (UK's Channel 4).
Islam: the Untold Story, review
Tom Holland suggests that the caliphs used Mohmmed in the same way that Constantine and other Emperors used Christ - to help bolster their Empires.
Holland does not see the Koran as History.
"The horror of the Near East in the seventh century beggers description - it’s a place ravaged by plague, by war, by gangs, by factionalism and of course in such a world women are objects to be stolen and plundered and abused.
woman’s flesh is a commodity, is something incredibly precious.
In The Shadow of the Sword, by Tom Holland